Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing by Hesham El-Rewini, Mostafa Abd-El-Barr

By Hesham El-Rewini, Mostafa Abd-El-Barr

Machine structure bargains with the actual configuration, logical constitution, codecs, protocols, and operational sequences for processing information, controlling the configuration, and controlling the operations over a working laptop or computer. It additionally encompasses observe lengths, guideline codes, and the interrelationships one of the major elements of a working laptop or computer or crew of desktops. This two-volume set bargains a finished assurance of the sector of laptop association and structure.

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Additional info for Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing (Wiley Series on Parallel and Distributed Computing) (v. 2)

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Therefore, the network complexity is O(2k) and the time complexity is O( log2 N). The cube-connected and the mesh-connected networks have been receiving increasing interest and, therefore, we discuss them in more detail in the following subsections. 3 Cube-Connected Networks Cube-connected networks are patterned after the n-cube structure. An n-cube (hypercube of order n) is defined as an undirected graph having 2n vertices labeled 0 to 2n À 1 such that there is an edge between a given pair of vertices if and only if the binary representation of their addresses differs by one and only one bit.

3 is measured in terms of the number of buses used, B. We therefore say that a multiple bus possesses an O(B) rate of cost (complexity) growth. The delay (latency) of a multiple bus, measured in terms of the amount of the input to output delay, is proportional to B Â N. We therefore say that the multiple bus possesses an O(B Â N) rate of delay (latency) growth. Multiple bus multiprocessor organization offers the desirable feature of being highly reliable and fault-tolerant. This is because a single bus failure in a B bus system will leave (B 2 1) distinct fault-free paths between the processors and the memory modules.

J þ 1 until it reaches the destination node. If a node at level i needs to communicate with another node at the same level i (or with node at level j = i where the destination node belongs to a different root’s child subtree), it will have to send its message up the tree until the message reaches the root node at level 0. The message will have to be then sent down from the root nodes until it reaches its destination. It should be noted that the number of nodes (processors) in a binary tree system having k levels can be calculated as: N(k) ¼ 20 þ 21 þ 22 þ Á Á Á þ 2k ¼ (2k À 1) ¼ 2k À 1 2À1 Notice also that the maximum depth of a binary tree system is dlog2 Ne, where N is the number of nodes (processors) in the network.

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