Advanced Design and Implementation of Virtual Machines by Xiao-Feng Li

By Xiao-Feng Li

Besides the more and more vital runtime engines pervasive in our daily-life computing, there's a powerful call for from the software program neighborhood for an effective presentation at the layout and implementation of contemporary digital machines, together with the Java digital computer, javascript engine and Android execution engine. The neighborhood expects to determine not just formal set of rules description, but additionally pragmatic code snippets to appreciate not just study issues, but additionally engineering recommendations. This e-book meets those calls for by means of supplying a distinct description that mixes excessive point layout with low point implementations and educational complex subject matters with advertisement strategies. This booklet takes a holistic method of the layout of VM structure, with contents geared up right into a constant framework, introducing subject matters and algorithms in an simply understood step-by-step strategy. It specializes in the severe elements of VM layout, that are frequently missed in different works, corresponding to runtime helpers, stack unwinding and local interface. The algorithms are absolutely illustrated in figures and applied in effortless to digest code snippets, making the summary recommendations tangible and programmable for procedure software program builders.

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Maximal basic block refers to the basic block that cannot be bigger, that is, including more instructions makes it no longer a basic block. , tracing execution) from the entrance, which is the start point of the trace. ” For loop-based tracing, the trace end point is where the control goes back to the start point. For basic-block-based tracing, the end point is the exit point of the basic block. In both approaches, the length of a trace is limited to avoid the execution strays away from the expected path.

Starting from next time, any invocation on the method will directly go to the compiled code through the vtable. 1 Vtable data structure. 2 Trampoline and JIT compilation. can be released if no one needs it, or be kept for later use again, in case the compiled code is released to save the memory consumed by the code cache. 2. In this way, the virtual method invocation can be very fast in a few machine instructions. foo(), the steps can be expressed in following pseudocode. vtable = *ovar; . // Get vtable pointer from ovar pointer foo_funcptr = *(vtable + foo_offset); //get pointer to foo() (*foo_funcptr)(); //invoke foo() If it is a VM for X86 processor, the instructions to invoke an virtual method of an object are like the following, assuming eax register holds ovar, the first slot of an object (offset 0) is the vtable pointer, method foo’s function pointer is at offset 16 of vtable.

Compile-time loop identification requires the VM to build up the control-flow graph of the application code and then traverse the graph in depth-first order. The edge that points to a node that has already been visited is called back edge, which is the indicator of a potential loop structure. Compile-time loop identification may not be suitable for tracebased JIT if the execution engine does not build control flow graph. Another issue is that compile-time analysis may only be able to find iterative loop but hardly find recursive loop.

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