Advanced Thermal Design of Electronic Equipment by Ralph Remsburg

By Ralph Remsburg

The box of digital packaging keeps to develop at an awesome cost. to achieve success during this box calls for analytical talents, a origin in mechanical engineering, and entry to the most recent advancements within the electronics box. The emphasis for every undertaking that the digital packaging engineer faces adjustments from undertaking to venture, and from corporation to corporation, but a few constants should still proceed into the foreseeable destiny. the sort of is the emphasis on ther­ mal layout. even supposing quite a few years in the past thermal research of digital gear used to be an afterthought, it truly is turning into one of many basic features of many packaging jobs. apparently the times of simply including a much bigger fan to lessen the overheat­ ing challenge are virtually over. changing that inspiration is the up-front dedication to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software program code, FEA (Finite aspect research) software program, and the belief that the matter will in basic terms worsen. because the digital circuit measurement is decreased, pace is elevated. because the energy of those structures raises and the amount allowed diminishes, warmth flux or density (heat in line with unit zone, W/m 2 or Btulh ft2) has spiraled. a lot of the advance within the reliability and packaging density of digital circuits could be traced to advances in thermal layout. whereas air cooling remains to be used greatly, complex warmth move options utilizing unique artificial drinks have gotten extra favourite, permitting nonetheless smaller platforms to be synthetic. The appli­ cation of complex thermal administration recommendations calls for a history in fluid dynamics.

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0 "0 , ~ ~ ! 0 ,1/ , , '~Al / ! =! , ...... 0 "" " DRAM.... •...... ........... :::. 1 Component failure rates with temperature for Programmable Array Logic (PAL), 256K Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), and Microprocessor. Data are from MIL-HDBK-2l7. hot object to a fluid coolant presumes a linear dependence on the temperature rise along the surface of the solid, known as Newtonian cooling . 1) where: qe = convective heat flow rate from the surface (W or Btu/h), A = surface area for heat transfer (m?

Anderson, D. , Tannehill, 1. , Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Hemisphere, New York, 1985. 5. Pantankar, S. , Numeri cal Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, New York, 1980. 6. Launder, B. , Lectures on Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, London and New York, 1972. 7. , "Computer Simulation Techniques for Turbulent Flows," in Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics , Vol. P . ), Gulf, June 1984, Journal of Appl. Math. Modeling, No. 10, June 1986. 8. Rai, M. , "Direct Numerical Simulation of Transition and Turbu lence in a Spatially Evolving Boundary Layer," AIAA paper 91-1607-CP, Proc .

27) can be simplified by assuming steady state , where aT/ at = 0. Since T varies only with x, and the heat flow is one-dimensional, then aT/ ay = 0, and aT/ az = 0. 1 Conduction in Simple Geometries In this sectienn we will calculate the equations for simple shapes such as a plane wall, a cylinder, and a sphere. 4 Steady-State Conduction 33 dimensional, that is, we require only a single coordinate to describe the spatial variation of the dependent variables. 1 Conduction Through a Plane Wall We know that the general heat conduction equation can be simplified for a onedimensional system by assuming steady state, where aT/ at = O.

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