Applied optics and optical engineering. Vol. I: Light. Its by R. Kingslake

By R. Kingslake

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Additional resources for Applied optics and optical engineering. Vol. I: Light. Its generation and modification

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Because temperature, rate, and pressure can all modify the amount of surface migration possible, and therefore the order in the growing grains, they are interrelated, as we will discuss below. 2. SURFACE DIFFUSION AND STRUCTURE 49 Pressure and temperature As evidence for the inhibition of surface migration and structural development by adsorbed gas, we can consider the temperature needed for deposition of a polycrystalline, rather than an amorphous, structure. In an atmospheric-pressure reactor with hydrogen carrier gas, polycrystalline films are deposited above about 680°C.

As the surface coverage by adsorbed species increases, subsequently adsorbed atoms readily encounter one another, and the nucleus density increases rapidly. As the number of nuclei increases, an incoming atom is likely to be adsorbed within a surface diffusion length of an existing nucleus (ie, within the distance an adsorbed atom can diffuse before desorbing), and it has a higher probability of diffusing to and joining this nucleus than of forming a new one. Thus, the surface is rapidly covered by an array of nuclei separated from each other by approximately the surface diffusion length of an adsorbed atom, and further nucleation is unlikely.

The initial formation of stable nuclei begins relatively slowly because ofthe infrequent encounter of individual diffusing atoms, and an incubation period is observed. The incubation period decreases with increasing temperature and silane concentration. As the surface coverage by adsorbed species increases, subsequently adsorbed atoms readily encounter one another, and the nucleus density increases rapidly. As the number of nuclei increases, an incoming atom is likely to be adsorbed within a surface diffusion length of an existing nucleus (ie, within the distance an adsorbed atom can diffuse before desorbing), and it has a higher probability of diffusing to and joining this nucleus than of forming a new one.

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