By James T. Patterson
Many folks have been elated while ideal court docket leader Justice Earl Warren added Brown v. Board of schooling of Topeka in may well 1954, the ruling that struck down state-sponsored racial segregation in America's public faculties. Thurgood Marshall, leader lawyer for the black households that introduced the litigation, exclaimed later, ''I used to be so satisfied, i used to be numb.'' The novelist Ralph Ellison wrote, ''another conflict of the Civil battle has been received. the remaining is as much as us and i am very completely happy. What an excellent international of percentages are spread out for the children!'' the following, in a concise, compelling narrative, Bancroft Prize-winning historian James T. Patterson takes readers in the course of the dramatic case and its fifty-year aftermath. quite a lot of characters animates the tale, from the little-known African-Americans who dared to problem Jim Crow with proceedings (at nice own cost); to Thurgood Marshall, who later turned a Justice himself; to Earl Warren, who shepherded a fractured courtroom to a unanimous determination. Others contain segregationist politicians like Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas; Presidents Eisenhower, Johnson, and Nixon; and debatable very best courtroom justices comparable to William Rehnquist and Clarence Thomas. such a lot americans nonetheless see Brown as a triumph--but used to be it? Patterson shrewdly explores the provocative questions that also swirl round the case. may the Court--or President Eisenhower--have performed extra to make sure compliance with Brown? Did the choice spark off the trendy civil rights stream? How necessary are court-ordered busing and affirmative motion opposed to racial segregation? To what volume has racial blending affected the educational fulfillment of black teenagers? the place certainly can we move from the following to achieve the expectancies of Marshall, Ellison, and others in 1954?
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Extra resources for Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy
Board of Education The Rev. Joseph DeLaine and his wife, Mattie. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection, 1966 photo) crop. He was helpless as his beans and oats and wheat rotted in the ﬁelds. DeLaine, Pearson, and others did not give up. Working with Marshall, who went south to help them, they agreed in 1949 on a bolder strategy. This involved getting twenty plaintiffs—evidence of signiﬁcant local solidarity—to support a suit that went well beyond buses.
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection) during the 1940s, overcrowding in black elementary schools led to double sessions that limited children to three hours per day. Many black children roved the streets during the rest of the time. 05 for blacks, $570 for whites. 6 among whites. Only after 1950, when the NAACP brought suit against segregation, did worried city and school ofﬁcials build new facilities so as to claim that they were meeting the constitutional principle of separate-but-truly-equal.
Blacks who then arrived in the car had to wait until these white people had ﬁnished dining, at which point the curtain would be drawn again and they could sit down and eat. ‘‘It was as if you were a pig or some kind of animal,’’ Henderson’s attorney complained. The Court was unanimous in striking down this practice. 15 For many whites, the very idea of desegregated schools prompted the ugliest imaginable images of racial mixing. No one expressed this feeling more clearly than Herbert Ravenel Sass, a South Carolinian, in the Atlantic Monthly in 1956: To suppose that, proclaiming the virtual identity of the races, we can promote all other degrees of race mixing but stop short of interracial mating is—if I may use an overworked but vivid simile—like going over Niagara Falls in a barrel in the expectation of stopping three fourths of the way down.