Canada's Enemies: Spies and Spying in the Peaceable Kingdom by Graeme Mount

By Graeme Mount

In 1898, Spanish spies established in Montreal, Halifax, and Victoria monitored the us warfare attempt opposed to their place of birth, whereas U.S. counter-intelligence officers watched the Spaniards. Neither the americans nor the Spaniards sought Canadian permission for those actions. Britain's enemies (and frequently America's enemies) have additionally been Canada's enemies. with no the heroic counter-intelligence of the mysterious Agent X, Irish americans on the flip of the century may need blasted British Columbia's legislature and the Esquimalt naval base the way in which they blasted the Welland Canal. in the course of international struggle I, counter-intelligence did not cease German brokers who bombed the Windsor-Walkerville sector in addition to the CPR bridge at the Maine-New Brunswick border. in the meantime, Canadian defense officers ran round in a nation of frantic frustration due to German "conspiracies" alongside the Ontario-New York nation border imagined through Sir Courtney bennett, British consul-general in long island urban. After the warfare, American moles in a Latvian put up workplace monitored mail among Canadian Communists and Moscow. within the thirties, a Finnish-Canadian clergyman spied on Sudbury's pink Finns for the us consultate inNorth Bay, and Hitler's consuls maintained surveillance of Canadian politicians and German dissidents in Canada. in the course of global conflict II, Canadian gurus intercepted the mail of envoys from Vichy-France, suspected of spying for Germany, and from Franco's Spain, suspected of spying for Japan. within the Sixties, the CIA not just saw Cubans in Canada, but in addition watched the location in Quebec and used a Canadian diplomat to gather info on North Vietnam. a few of this heritage has merged from formerly missed and newly declassified records from ecu, American, and Canadian files. those newly published info exhibit that Canada is a fascinating position, either for what Canadians do in other places and for what foreigners do in Canada. additionally, as soon as readers have obvious the types of actions during which associates interact, they're much less shocked at what enemies have performed.

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Irish terrorists, who hated the British and worked with Germans, were another threat, but they appear to have attempted amazingly few attacks on Canadian targets. Before his unceremonious departure from the United States, von Papen also tried to recruit Sikhs as German agents. On 27 December 1914, another cable from Zimmermann to von Bernstorff told the ambassador to provide financial assistance to Sikh revolutionaries at the University of California's Berkeley campus, where Har Dayal was a teacher.

To some extent, the British relied on their own resources for IrishAmerican control, but, as they were operating in the United States — a friendly foreign country whose British policy under Woodrow Wilson was one of benevolent neutrality - they also cooperated with Americans, at least after Robert Lansing replaced Bryan as Secretary of State in 1915. P. " Leay in turn reported the matter to Cecil Arthur Spring Rice, British ambassador in the United States, and Spring Rice told Leay to notify the local police about any such threats.

Hussey, superintendent of the Provincial Police in Victoria. Throughout March 1900 the British Columbia Provincial Police and the senior naval officer in Esquimalt remained in constant contact with the British consulate-general in San Francisco which, in turn, passed messages back and forth. On 28 March, X reported that she had interviewed a fanatically anti-British Irish-American named Donovan the previous day. " He told X that his father was an Irish Fenian whom the British had executed. After the execution, British authorities had confiscated the family's property.

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