By Stephen Jacobson
Supplying a window into the background of the fashionable felony career in Western Europe, Stephen Jacobson provides a background of attorneys within the so much industrialized urban at the Mediterranean. faraway from being mere curators of static legislations, Barcelona's attorneys have been on the heart of social clash and political and monetary switch, mediating among nation, relations, and society.Beginning with the resurrection of a decadent bar in the course of the Enlightenment, Jacobson lines the old evolution of attorneys during the lengthy 19th century. one of the matters he explores are the attributes of the fashionable felony career, how legal professionals engaged with the Enlightenment, how they molded occasions within the Age of Revolution and helped consolidate a liberal constitutional order, why a liberal occupation turned conservative and corporatist, and the way legal professionals promoted fin-de-siÃ¨cle nationalism.From the vantage element of a urban with a wonderful felony tradition,Catalonia's Advocates offers clean perception into ecu social and felony heritage; the origins of liberal professionalism; the schooling, education, and perform of legislations within the 19th century; the growth of continental bureaucracies; and the corporatist elements of contemporary nationalism.
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Additional resources for Catalonia's Advocates: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759-1900 (Studies in Legal History)
5 Although his study is limited to England, the description also fits continental trends. In concrete terms, the old bar declined, and a modern one emerged. In the sixteenth and seven teenth centuries, lawyers had represented a range of clients with civil disputes from a wide swath of society, and litigation had been a more regular occurrence, a more general and less exceptional manner of dispute resolution than it ever had been or would be in history. 6 The reasons for this were not uniform and need to be studied on a case-by-case basis, but with respect to Catalonia, and other places on the continent, absolutism was the cause.
In the early modern period, many distinguished or well-connected jurists had obtained the title “honored citizen” (ciutadà honrat) and by the seventeenth century had come to form the bulwark of a noblesse de robe that dominated representative posts on municipal and regional political assemblies. 15 The Bourbons, however, ceased to award this title to lawyers with the same frequency as their predecessors, the Habsburgs. 16 This is not a definitive count as there were other whiffs of nobility around: some lawyers came from families in which an older brother or cousin held a patent; a few inherited or acquired one later in life; and court notaries may not have recorded all titles.
Beyond the industrial belt were the foothills of the Pyrenees, where free trade destroyed uncompetitive economies and where revolutionary laws disentailing and auctioning off church and municipal lands wrought havoc on property rela- Introduction S 15 tions, causing massive social dislocation. Some towns in this region were strongholds for counterrevolutionaries who waged civil wars against liberal regimes in defense of throne and altar. After succumbing to an absolutist revolt and a French invasion in the early 1820s, the Spanish army triumphed over absolutists during the First Carlist War from 1833 to 1839 and again during the Second Carlist War from 1872 to 1875.