Collective quantum fields by Kleinert.

By Kleinert.

It's the goal of this e-book to debate an easy process through Feynman course necessary formulation within which the transformation to collective fields quantities to merechanges of integration variables in practical integrals. After the transformation, the trail formula will back be discarded. The ensuing box thought is quantizedin the normal model and the basic quanta at once describe the collective excitations

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K. Ma, Phys. Rev. 174, 227 (1968); Y. Kuroda, A. D. S. Nagi, J. Low. Temp. 23, 751 (1976). [31] D. Rainer, J. W. Serene, Phys. Rev. B13, 4745 (1976); Y. Kuroda, A. D. S. Nagi, J. Low Temp. Phys. 25, 569 (1976). 38 2 Relativistic Fields [32] For a review see: D. R. Bes, R. A. Broglia, Lectures delivered at “E. Fermi” Varenna Summer School, Varenna, Como. Italy, 1976. For recent studies: D. R. Bes, R. A. Broglia, R. Liotta, B. R. Mottelson, Phys. Letters 52B, 253 (1974); 56B, 109 (1975), Nuclear Phys.

11) But we also may choose Λ(p) = Bpˆ (ζ)Rϕˆ (ϕ) where R is an arbitrary rotation, since these leave the rest momentum pµR invariant. In fact, the rotations form the largest subgroup of the group of all proper Lorentz transformations which leaves the rest momentum pµR invariant. It is referred to as the little group or Wigner group of a massive particle. It has an important physical significance since it serves to specify the intrinsic rotational degrees of freedom of the particle. If the particle is at rest it carries no orbital angular momentum.

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