By John L. Hennessy
This best-selling identify, thought of for over a decade to be crucial analyzing for each severe scholar and practitioner of machine layout, has been up-to-date all through to deal with an important developments dealing with computing device designers at the present time. during this variation, the authors deliver their trademark approach to quantitative research not just to excessive functionality machine desktop layout, but additionally to the layout of embedded and server structures. they've got illustrated their rules with designs from all 3 of those domain names, together with examples from buyer electronics, multimedia and net applied sciences, and excessive functionality computing.The publication keeps its hugely rated good points: Fallacies and Pitfalls, which percentage the hard-won classes of actual designers; old views, which offer a deeper examine desktop layout historical past; placing all of it jointly, which current a layout instance that illustrates the rules of the bankruptcy; labored Examples, which problem the reader to use the innovations, theories and techniques in smaller scale difficulties; and Cross-Cutting concerns, which express how the information coated in a single bankruptcy engage with these awarded in others. furthermore, a brand new function, one other View, provides short layout examples in a single of the 3 domain names except the single selected for placing all of it Together.The authors current a brand new association of the cloth besides, decreasing the overlap with their different textual content, desktop association and layout: A Hardware/Software method 2/e, and supplying extra in-depth remedy of complex subject matters in multithreading, guideline point parallelism, VLIW architectures, reminiscence hierarchies, garage units and community technologies.Also new to this variation, is the adoption of the MIPS sixty four because the guideline set structure. as well as numerous on-line appendixes, new appendixes can be published within the publication: one incorporates a whole overview of the fundamental techniques of pipelining, the opposite presents suggestions a variety of the workouts. either could be worthwhile to the coed or expert studying on her personal or within the school room. Hennessy and Patterson proceed to target basic recommendations for designing genuine machines and for maximizing their cost/performance. * offers cutting-edge layout examples including:* IA-64 structure and its first implementation, the Itanium * Pipeline designs for Pentium III and Pentium IV * The cluster that runs the Google seek engine * EMC garage structures and their functionality* Sony Playstation 2* Infiniband, a brand new garage quarter and procedure region community* SunFire 6800 multiprocessor server and its processor the UltraSPARC III* Trimedia TM32 media processor and the Transmeta Crusoe processor* Examines quantitative functionality research within the advertisement server industry and the embedded marketplace, in addition to the conventional laptop market.Updates all of the examples and figures with the latest benchmarks, comparable to SPEC 2000.* Expands insurance of guide units to incorporate descriptions of electronic sign processors, media processors, and multimedia extensions to computer processors.* Analyzes ability, fee, and function of disks over decades.Surveys the position of clusters in clinical computing and advertisement computing.* provides a survey, taxonomy, and the benchmarks of error and screw ups in computing device systems.* provides specific descriptions of the layout of garage structures and of clusters.* Surveys reminiscence hierarchies in smooth microprocessors and the main parameters of contemporary disks.* provides a thesaurus of networking phrases.
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Additional info for Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd Edition, 2002
The problem above of unspeciﬁed inputs is best solved by specifying the inputs when comparing performance. If results must be normalized to a speciﬁc machine, ﬁrst summarize performance with the proper weighted measure and then do the normalizing. Lastly, we must remember that any summary measure necessarily loses information, especially when the measurements may vary widely. Thus, it is important both to ensure that the results of individual benchmarks, as well as the summary number, are available.
Finally, for simple processors, it is possible to compute an approximation to the CPI. This approximation is computed by modeling and analyzing the execution of each basic block (or straightline code segment) and then computing an overall estimate of CPI or total compute cycles by multiplying the estimate for each basic block by the number of times it is executed. Although this simple model ignores memory behavior and has severe limits for modeling complex pipelines, it is a reasonable and very fast technique for modeling the performance of short, integer pipelines, ignoring the memory system behavior.
This is called the weighted arithmetic mean: n ∑ Weighti × Timei i=1 where Weighti is the frequency of the ith program in the workload and Timei is the execution time of that program. 15 with three different weightings, each proportional to the execution time of a workload with a given mix. 16 Weighted arithmetic mean execution times for three machines (A, B, C) and two programs (P1 and P2) using three weightings (W1, W2, W3). The top table contains the original execution time measurements and the weighting factors, while the bottom table shows the resulting weighted arithmetic means for each weighting.