By B. S. Chalk (auth.)
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Extra resources for Computer Organisation and Architecture: An Introduction
How do we convert one to the other? 5 The Motorola MC68000 In this chapter we examine the instruction set architecture or programmer-visible aspects of a real processor, the Motorola MC68000. We begin by describing the register set, the types of instruction supported and some of the powerful addressing modes provided. This is followed by an overview of instruction formatting and coding. Towards the end of the chapter, we analyse a couple of assembly language programs and discuss the modes in which the 68000 can operate.
In which cases will arithmetic overflow occur ? (a) 100 + 27 (b) 84 +52 (c) 115-64 (d) -85-44 8. 7 References Clements, A (1991), The Principles of Computer Hardware, Oxford University Press, pp. 141-220. 4 Fetching and Executing Instructions At the heart of a microcomputer system lies the CPU or processor. The processor runs a program by repeatedly fetching and executing instructions from main memory. By using a step-by-step approach, this chapter outlines the way in which this is done using a highly simplified processor.
Negative numbers are often represented in binary form using the two's complement representations. This representation allows subtraction to be carried out using the same basic circuitry used for addition. When adding two's complement numbers with the same sign, a condition called overflow can occur. An overflow condition is automatically flagged in the Condition Code Register. Real numbers can be represented as floating point numbers. Floating point numbers use a particular format to represent the· mantissa and the exponent.