Computer Systems Architecture: a Networking Approach ( by Rob Williams

By Rob Williams

The first machine structure textual content to acknowledge that pcs are actually predinantly utilized in a networking surroundings, absolutely up-to-date to incorporate new applied sciences and with an all new bankruptcy on allotted Computing.

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Integers are generally 32 bits long. The enforcement of two’s complement as a method of representing and manipulating negative integers was finally hammered home by hardware producers such as Intel, who supplied the microprocessors with it built in. Similarly, the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point numbers was first introduced by the manufacturers of floating-point processors, who established a de facto industry standard for 32 and 64 bit formats. I will refer again to these matters in Chapter 5.

The translation of HLL instructions into machine codes is now done automatically by another program as outlined in Fig. 4. This translation can be done on-the-fly by an interpreter or beforehand by a compiler. BASIC and Java both started with interpreters, but compilers then became available as well. Pascal and C are nearly always compiled, but interpreters can be obtained. With the fast processors that are now available, and the tendency to break large programs into semi-autonomous parts, the disadvantage of waiting for compile-links to complete has largely disappeared.

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