Content-Addressable Memories by Teuvo Kohonen

By Teuvo Kohonen

Because of continuous development within the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing ideas can already be met in reasonably cheap sys­ tems: various examples exist in photograph processing, for which certain difficult­ ware is implementable with fairly modest assets even by way of nonprofessional designers. rules of content material addressing, if completely understood, can thereby be utilized successfully utilizing common parts. nevertheless, mass garage in response to associative rules nonetheless exists in simple terms within the lengthy­ time period plans of laptop technologists. this case is just a little burdened through the truth that yes expectancies are held for the advance of latest garage media equivalent to optical thoughts and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their applied sciences, despite the fact that, won't ripen until eventually after "fifth iteration" pcs were equipped. apparently software program tools for content material addressing, specially these in response to hash coding ideas, are nonetheless maintaining their place firmly, and some strategies were constructed lately. As they want no distinctive undefined, one may possibly anticipate that they are going to unfold to a large circle of clients. This monograph relies on an in depth literature survey, such a lot of which used to be released within the First version. i've got additional Chap. ?, which includes a assessment of more moderen paintings. This up-to-date publication now has references to over 1200 unique courses. within the enhancing of the hot fabric, I got important aid from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.

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However, it should be noticed that when one or more reserve locations are made to depend on a common hash address, there becomes a need to have extra means for the identification of the overflowing entries with their keywords, since the hash address is the same, and the exact place of the reserve location cannot be predicted. The usual solution is to store the keyword (or some unique function of it) in conjunction with the corresponding entry, and during retrieval, the keyword used as the search argument must then be compared with keywords stored in possible reserve locations in order to find the correct entry (Fig.

It seems that the human memory to a great extent operates in this way; although a single occurrence can cause clear memory traces. nonetheless recollections are often only stereotypic. affected by earlier experiences. This must be due to the fact that biological systems almost without exception tend to optimize their resources. and this principle must also be reflected in the utilization of memory. One elementary way for the description of "infinite" memory is to assume that there are representations in the memory for only a finite set of items {x(i)}.

2) The amounts of information gained from elementary comparisons are assumed udditive. It will be necessary to emphasize that correlation methods are most suitable for the detection of periodic signals which are contaminated by Gaussian noise; since the distributions of natural patterns may often not be Gaussian, other criteria of comparison, some of which are discussed below, must be considered, too. Direction Cosines. If the relevant information in patterns or signals is contained only in the relative magnitudes of their components, then similarity can often be better measured in terms of direction cosines defined in the fol- lowing way.

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