Crime and Violence as Development Issues in Latin America by Robert L. Ayers

By Robert L. Ayers

Crime and violence have emerged in recent times as significant stumbling blocks to improvement pursuits in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) international locations. The paper explicates an time table for destiny paintings that could support LAC nations by means of discussing 'policy domain names' the place motion is needed. Such domain names comprise decreasing city poverty, concentrating on efforts on 'at-risk' teams, construction or rebuilding social capital, strengthening municipal ability for battling crime and violence, and reforming the legal justice procedure.

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Crime and Violence as Development Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean (World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies)

Crime and violence have emerged lately as significant hindrances to improvement pursuits in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations. The paper explicates an schedule for destiny paintings which could support LAC international locations by way of discussing 'policy domain names' the place motion is needed. Such domain names contain lowering city poverty, concentrating on efforts on 'at-risk' teams, development or rebuilding social capital, strengthening municipal potential for fighting crime and violence, and reforming the felony justice process.

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Additional info for Crime and Violence as Development Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean (World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies)

Sample text

The regional recession after the debt crisis of the early 1980s and the effects of the subsequent structural adjustment on the urban poor led to severe shrinkages of real wages and job opportunities for large segments of the urban labor force. 27 Another factor contributing to the increase in urban poverty was the substantial decline in public expenditures on basic urban infrastructure and social services, which had a disproportionate effect on the poor. The links to crime and violence are at least twofold in this scenario: through unemployment and underemployment, and through the deterioration of the quality of life in poor urban areas.

With a fairly clear understanding of the characteristics of at-risk youth and the etiology of their plight, the question becomes the nature of best-practice programs for assisting them. As background work for the preparation of a World Bank-financed pilot project to assist at-risk youth in Colombia, some two dozen international youth-serving programs were examined. While there are no easy answers, there appear to be a number of generic lessons that can guide efforts in this area. Among them are the need for community-based approaches; private sector involvement; youth participation in the design of programs on their behalf; careful management of individual cases by interdisciplinary teams of professionals who oversee the needs of youth; and a concern for replicability and sustainability Page 17 (because these programs can easily become expensive).

The individual's moral values would determine the threshold. Equation (2) establishes this relationship between the decision to commit a crime and the net benefits of such behavior: D stands for the decision to commit the crime (D=1) or not to commit the crime (D=0). t* represents the threshold level of net benefits that determine whether the individual will (or will not) commit the crime. Thus we get: This simple model highlights some of the complexities related to criminal behavior and the policy choices available to reduce crime.

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