By Jim Mansell, Kent Ericsson
This article presents an up to date precis and accomplished evaluation of study in exchanging institutional care with neighborhood care of mentally retarded individuals. It examines 3 parts of the realm: Sweden; Britain; and the U.S..
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Extra info for Deinstitutionalization and Community Living: Intellectual disability services in Britain, Scandinavia and the USA
The mortgages on the buildings were largely financed by federal Medicaid reimbursement for the residents' services. Importantly, the salaries of a new cadre of young, professional, unionized state employees were substantially underwritten by the federal government through Medicaid. Although the institutions retained their physical appearance and distance from the community, several significant changes in their structure, financing, staffing, and role in a larger human services framework revitalized them in New York.
INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT The complicated process of closing the state facilities required an extraordinary degree of competent management throughout the service system, and that certainly included the superintendent and staff of the state facility. It required institutional leadership and staff dedicated to individuals moving into community services while providing high quality support for the clients who remained pending their placement. Staff at Laconia Community services 23 State School were given repeated 'values' training such as PASSING, Social Role Valorization, and related instruction in normalization (Wolfensberger and Thomas, 1983; Wolfensberger and Glenn, 1975).
This was particularly important because New York's Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD) had operated the largest system of institutions since the nineteenth century. The decision to close these large institutions was a major new direction in the state's policy for the care of people with developmental disabilities, and their closure provided important lessons about policymaking and implementation in this area. This chapter examines both the decision to close and the implementation of the first phase of that policy.