By Jennifer B. Dressman, Christos Reppas
The a lot expected moment version of Oral Drug Absorption completely examines the precise gear and strategies used to check even if medicines are published correctly whilst administered orally. Case-based examples and a supplementary interactive CD-ROM are integrated to supply real-life techniques to checking out. This useful, hands-on consultant is helping pharmaceutical group of workers: version their very own trying out information utilizing the Excel function at the CD-ROM establish formulations that would produce the easiest scientific effects transparent items for free up into the marketplace ensure batch-to-batch reproducibility determine no matter if adjustments in formula or production approach after advertising and marketing approval impact scientific functionality make sure if a wide-spread model of the drugs may be licensed the second one Edition’s new themes comprise: advances in pharmacokinetic modeling and profiling competently constructing and validating in vitro and in vivo correlations for either MR and IR formulations equipment used for artificial medicines replacement techniques for MR and IR formulations bioequivalence reports and biowaiving nutritional complement issues formula screening and various methods from the U.S. and eu views
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Additional resources for Oral Drug Absorption: Prediction and Assessment, Second Edition (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)
4. Meyer JH. Motility of the stomach and gastroduodenal junction. In: Johnson RL, ed. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1987:622. 5. Dressman JB, Berardi RR, Dermentzoglou LC, et al. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) pH in young, healthy men and women. Pharm Res 1990; 7:756–761. 6. Mojaverian P. Evaluation of gastrointestinal pH and gastric residence time via the Heidelberg radiotelemetry capsule: pharmaceutical application. Drug Dev Res 1996; 38:73–85. 7. Lindahl A, Ungell A-L, Knutson L, et al.
The fact that SCFAs are primarily formed as a result of bacterial activity on dietary residues for the colonic environment suggests that there may be differences in osmolarity as well as pH and buffer capacity between the fed and fasted state. Such differences have also been observed experimentally (28,29). The mean total fluid volume in the ascending colon has been determined by a scintigraphic method to average 162 mL, with individual volumes ranging between 82 and 303 mL (30). Using magnetic resonance imaging, the total volume of free water in colon was estimated to be less than 20 mL, with individual values between 1 and 100 mL (24).
Despite the dissolved electrolytes and the pancreatic and biliary secretions, the fasted state intestinal fluid appears to be hypoosmotic. Osmolality values between 140 and 270 mOsm/kg have been recorded (7,10,21). Recently, the volume and distribution of the intestinal fluid in the gut have been discussed. Using magnetic resonance imaging it has been shown that volume of intestinal fluid in fasted persons is highly variable, ranging from 45 to 320 mL (24), comparable with postmortem fluid volumes of about 60 to 350 mL (25).