By Larry L. Augsburger, Stephen W. Hoag
The final word objective of drug product improvement is to layout a process that maximizes the healing strength of the drug substance and enables its entry to sufferers. Pharmaceutical Dosage types: capsules, 3rd variation is a accomplished source of the layout, formula, manufacture, and overview of the pill dosage shape, and with over seven-hundred illustrations it courses pharmaceutical scientists and engineers via tricky and technical methods in an easy easy-to-follow structure. New to the 3rd edition. Read more...
summary: the last word aim of drug product improvement is to layout a process that maximizes the healing strength of the drug substance and enables its entry to sufferers. Pharmaceutical Dosage kinds: drugs, 3rd variation is a entire source of the layout, formula, manufacture, and evaluate of the pill dosage shape, and with over seven-hundred illustrations it publications pharmaceutical scientists and engineers via tough and technical approaches in an easy easy-to-follow structure. New to the 3rd version
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An assessment of the findings can then proceed, with actions taken to address the shortcomings. In some cases, actions will be easy and inexpensive. In other cases, more extensive investigations will be required. More details can be found in Smith (10). REFERENCES 1. Gy PM. Sampling of Heterogeneous and Dynamic Material Systems: Theories of Heterogeneity, Sampling and Homogenizing. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1992, pp. 1–653. 2. Gy PM. Sampling for Analytical Purposes. Chichester: Wiley, 1998, pp. 1–153.
The first step of the particle size characterization process is acquiring a representative sample from a batch or lot of material. The issue of bulk sampling is complex; the first chapter of this book is devoted to sampling theory. Any analysis of particle size is only as good as the sample used for the measurement and any errors in sampling will lead to erroneous results. Overview of Particle Size Characterization For the sake of presentation, the measurement and the determination of particle size will be broken into three sections: first, characterizing the size of individual particles, second, statistically summarizing groups of particles, and third, a discussion of the methods for particle size measurement.
Hatch–Choate Equations An advantage of the log normal distribution is that multiplication becomes addition and exponential terms become multiplicative. As a result of the properties of logarithms, the geometric standard deviation is the same for the number–length, number–surface, number–volume, etc. distributions. This fact allows one to calculate the relationships between different averages for the log normal distribution, and these equations are called the Hatch–Choate equations. For example, the number length diameter can be expressed as: P Z 1 ðln dÀln dg Þ2 1 ni di À pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d NL ¼ P ¼ d Á e 2 ln2 g d ln d ð72Þ ni ln g 2 À1 Upon much manipulation, see Allen for details (9), the following relationship can be deduced from Equation (72): 2 dNL ¼ dg e0:5 ln g ) ln dNL ¼ ln dg þ 0:5 ln2 g ð73Þ Thus, for log normal distributions if one mean diameter is known, equations like Equation (73) can be used to find the other mean diameters.