Photoreceptor Optics by Randolf Menzel, Allan W. Snyder (auth.), Dr. Allan W.

By Randolf Menzel, Allan W. Snyder (auth.), Dr. Allan W. Snyder, Professor Dr. Randolf Menzel (eds.)

The above attention exhibits that at the present the various experi­ psychological proof on playstation in animals will be quantitatively defined in the limits of the "universal" photoreceptor membrane inspiration. in fact, life of preferential orientation of the soaking up dipoles within the tubuli of the rhabdomeres cannot be absolutely rejected. we are hoping that the idea that of the "universal" photoreceptor membrane may well function the beneficial tool while facing newly found houses of visible cells in order that precise mechanisms of electric and optical coupling should be looked for rather than assumptions being made on extra houses of the photoreceptor membrane in each new animal less than research. five. Absorption Spectrum of the common Photoreceptor Membrane and Spectral Sensitivity of the Photoreceptor five. 1 initial Notes it kind of feels approximately self-evident that the absorption spectrum of the pho­ toreceptor membrane coincides precisely with that of the visible pigment it includes. consequently, the membrane needs to express 3 bands of absorp­ tion - the vital band with its height in the limits of noticeable spectrum (or a-peak); the secondary band among 340 and 380 nm (S­ peak); and the 3rd, protein band, within the ultraviolet (UV) at 280 nm (COLLINS et al. , 1952). the most height of absorption is found in the diversity 433-575 nm for retinol-based pigments and among 438 and 620 nm for 3-dehydroretinol-based pigments, the location of Amax de­ pending on many ecological factors.

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Soc. Amer. 50, 1025-1026 (1960). : Waveguide modes in retinal receptors. Science~, 1353-1354 (1961a). : Visualization of waveguide modes in retinal receptors. Amer. J. Ophthal. 5, Part 2, 1107-1118 (1961b). : Nature of the transmission of energy in the retinal receptors. J. opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 1122-1126 (1961c). : Optical properties of retinal receptors. J. opt. Soc. Amer. ~ 71-85 (1963) . : Retinal microspectrophotometry. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 833-835 (1966). : The retina as a fiber optics bundle.

How is the alignment in a given species established? How is it maintained? What factors can alter it? What are the functional consequences of disturbances in alignment? Can alignment be re-established once disrupted? and so forth. Some of these questions are of considerable clinical significance. In terms of the current analysis one may further inquire as to whether the anterior pointing alignment property is present in all rod (essentially noncone) retinas and in rod-dominant species, and whether both rods and cones have a common central alignment tendency at a given retinal locus in a given species.

Birefringence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dichroism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fused Rhabdoms............................................................ References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 38 39 39 40 41 41 41 42 43 43 44 46 47 47 48 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 53 53 54 54 1. e. its size, shape, refractive index, orientation and arrangement, on the absorption of light by photopigment (MILLER, 1974; SNYDER, 1974a).

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