By J. M. Raimond (auth.), Martial Ducloy, Daniel Bloch (eds.)
In the previous couple of years it was once noticeable the emergence of assorted new quantum phenomena in particular comparable with digital or optical confinement on a sub-wavelength-size. speedy advancements concurrently happened within the box of Atomic Physics, significantly via a number of regimes of hollow space Quantum Electrodynamics, and in strong country Physics, with advances in Quantum good know-how and Nanooptoelectronics. concurrently, breakthroughs in Near-Field Optics supplied new instruments which will be broadly appropriate to those domain names. despite the fact that, the foremost suggestions used to explain those new and partially similar results are usually very assorted and particular of the neighborhood excited about a given improvement. it's been the ambition of the assembly held at "Centre de body des Houches" to provide a chance to experts of other groups to deepen their knowing of advances roughly in detail with regards to their very own box, whereas featuring the fundamental innovations of those various fields via pedagogical Introductions. The viewers comprised complex scholars, postdocs and senior scientists, with a balanced participation of Atomic Physicists and good country Physicists, and had a really overseas personality. The enormous efforts of the academics, with a purpose to current fascinating new leads to a language obtainable to the full viewers, have been the fundamental materials to accomplish effectively what used to be the most target of this School.
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Additional info for Quantum Optics of Confined Systems
Only quantum fluctuations can drive the maser out of this metastable zero intensity point. The oscillatory gain behavior has also important consequences for the field statistics. The gain is, in some conditions, a decreasing function of the intensity around the operating point. This results in a stabilization of the photon number against fluctuations of the atomic beam intensity, which are the only cause of field amplitude fluctuations in this very simple oscillator. The field in the cavity is then highly sub-poissonian.
0 0. 200 OL-----~----~------~-----L----~------~~--~ o 200 400 600 0/21t (kHz) Figure 7. Shifts of the fringe system in an empty cavity versus atom-cavity detuning. Open circles: raw data. FUll circles: data corrected for the residual thermal radiation. Solid line: theoretical fit. improvements of the experiment (optimizing the atomic beam position in the cavity mode pattern and selecting slower atoms), it would even be possible to achieve a 7r phase shift 'of the Ramsey fringes for a single photon.
In a similar way, 1\[1-) contains only odd photon numbers. 1\[1+) can be called an "even cat", and 1\[1_) an "odd cat". 34 This peculiar photon number distribution explains why the "cats" are short lived. After a time of the order of t cav / N (N is the average photon number in the cat), relaxation fills the gaps in the photon number distribution, and the cat turns into a mere statistical superposition of two fields. The larger the energy, the larger the "distance" between the two cat components, the faster the decoherence.