The APhA Complete Review for Pharmacy, 7th Edition by Dick R. Gourley

By Dick R. Gourley

The NAPLEX (North American Pharmacist Licensure exam) is the traditional licensing examination that every one U.S. pharmacy scholars needs to go to perform pharmacy. It’s an laborious examination that exams a frightening variety of information.

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Salt Preparation Salts can be produced on a small scale using a variety of methods. Selected methods are described below. 1. Salt Formation from Free Acid/Base In salt formation from free acid or base, the free acid/base of the drug substance is combined with the base/acid containing the desired counterion in specific molar ratios in a suitable solvent system. There must be adequate solubility of each reactant in the solvent system chosen. The product can be isolated in different ways, often simply by evaporation of the solvent.

Gould, in his study of the salts of basic drugs, concluded that ‘‘ideal solubility of a drug in all solvents decreases by an order of magnitude with an increase of 100°C in its melting point’’ (12). An example of this phenomenon is the antimalarial drug α-(2-piperidyl)-3,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)-9-phenanthrenemethanol hy- Fig. 8 The structure of REV 5901. Copyright 2002 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Fig. 9 The methanol. structure of α-(2-piperidyl)-3,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)-9-phenanthrene- drochloride (Fig.

Fig. 30 The structure of DHEA. So far we have concentrated on the crystalline state, but it is important to note that amorphous materials may also exist in various forms. An excellent review of the amorphous state, including a discussion of polymorphism, was published by Hancock and Zografi (43). It is well known that an amorphous substance behaves like a glass below and a rubber above its glass transition temperature. In addition, polyamorphism of glasses may be possible. For example, amorphous permethylated β-cyclodextrin (Fig.

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