Transistor fundamentals. Volume 2, Basic transistor circuits by C A Pike

By C A Pike

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Dualphase (DP) steel has a two-phase ferrite and martensite, while transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel has a multiphase ferrite, bainite/martensite, and retained austenite microstructure. 4 Categories of Steels Within a steel category, a distinction should be made as to whether or QRWDVLJQL¿FDQWDPRXQWRIDOOR\LQJHOHPHQWVRWKHUWKDQFDUERQLVXVHG A composition of 5% alloying elements is an arbitrary boundary between low-alloy and high-alloy steels. Various elements are added to steels to 42 / Advanced High-Strength Steels—Science, Technology, and Application Fig.

1 Portion of the Fe-Fe3C phase diagram for carbon steel Chapter 2: Steel Fundamentals / 25 Ferrite is iron containing a very small amount of carbon. 022% at 725 °C. The iron-carbon phase diagram describes what happens when a certain grade of carbon steel is slowly heated or cooled. For instance, eutectoid steel transforms completely to austenite on heating above the eutectoid temperature of 725 °C and transforms completely to pearlite on cooling below this temperature. The carbon content provides many different steel compositions and microstructures and, therefore, is the major factor in determining the properties that can be developed in steel.

Alloying elements affect diffusion and limit austenite transformation at high temperature to the extent that a double “knee” is formed. 15 shows that the “knee” of the CCT diagram shifted from a low cooling time of approximately 1 second for low carbon steel (Fig. 9) to a high cooling time of approximately 10 seconds for HSLA steel (Fig. 15). The properties of steel can be controlled by heat treating procedures through the control of microstructure. Heat treating involves heating the steel to a temperature where austenite is formed and then cooling it at an appropriate rate to transform it to the desired microstructure.

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