By Morris H. Morley
This learn of U.S. coverage towards Nicaragua through the Nixon, Ford, and Carter presidencies unearths the elemental significance Washington put on protecting kingdom associations in Latin the USA whereas adopting a way more versatile strategy concerning aid for elected regimes or dictatorial rulers. The Carter White residence determination to offload a longstanding best friend, Somoza, and aid a regime swap was once prompted through the looks of a mass-based social stream led by way of radical nationalist guerrillas posing a problem to either the dictatorial regime and, extra importantly, the country constitution that underpinned it. This e-book relies at the vast use of non-public interviews and lately declassified U.S. govt files. between its targeted positive aspects is the emphasis at the pivotal position Washington performed in contributing to the long term survival of the Somoza dictatorship. it's the first particular research, in line with unique learn, of Nixon and Ford coverage towards Nicaragua, and it comprises the main exact dialogue of U.S. coverage towards Nicaragua throughout the early interval of Sandinista rule.
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Extra resources for Washington, Somoza and the Sandinistas: State and Regime in US Policy toward Nicaragua 1969-1981
As these case studies demonstrate, Washington's policy toward the state in Latin America has remained constant; toward the regime, variable. Whether we are discussing Eisenhower and Cuba, the Kennedy-Johnson approach toward the Dominican Republic and Brazil, Nixon's hostility toward Chile, Carter's policy toward El Salvador, or Reagan's approach toward the crisis of the dictatorship in Guatemala, the thread that links them is a singular determination to preserve the state, together with a flexible approach regarding support for elected regimes or dictatorial rulers.
54 Irrespective of the nature of the Somozas' clientelism, however, such an interpretation cannot obscure Washington's pivotal role in contributing to the longevity of the dynasty. As the events of 1978 and 1979 so graphically illustrate, its survival ultimately depended on the hegemonic power's continued support. S. policy toward Nicaragua during the Nixon and Ford presidencies, highlighting the bureaucratic debate, confined primarily to State Department officials, over how closely Washington should tie itself to Somoza.
On the one hand, the victorious Christian Democratic Party had little or no history of involvement with the depredations of military rule, and the new president Vinicio Cerezo espoused the rhetoric of human rights. On the other, the civilian regime was prepared to accommodate, and collaborate with, the terrorist state structure, the oligarchy, and foreign multinationals. S. Congress and West European governments. The essential feature of the political transition is that it took place on terms established by the armed forces: no letup in the counterinsurgency program; army control over foreign policy, rural development policy, and all security matters; no prosecution of military officials for human rights 28 Washington, Somoza, and the Sandinistas abuses; and no socioeconomic reforms that threaten the position of the oligarchy.