By E. Wolf (Ed.)
Hardbound. quantity 31 within the growth in Optics sequence back proves the worth of good written complete stories within the extensive box of optics.
the 1st article offers an intensive assessment of modern investigations referring to multiphoton ionization of atoms in extreme radiation fields and comprises discussions on above threshold ionization, new release of higher-order harmonics of an severe box interacting with a gaseous medium and the function of chaotic dynamics within the interplay of atoms with monochromatic radiation. an educational part on chaotic habit is usually included.
the second one article provides a overview of contemporary advancements concerning homes of sunshine diffracted by way of gratings. either a phenomenological remedy and a macroscopic research are presented.
in this article studies advancements in relation to optical amplifiers, particularly these which use semiconductors and optical fibers. the thing covers the working princip
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Additional info for Progress in Optics, Vol. 31
On free-free multiphoton transitions. ) 250 100 In : 50 200 5 a m Y m. c 0 g 150 0 100 100 50 50 b L m + C 2 0 0 - 5 4 3 2 1 01 2 3 4 5 - t 0 -54321012 345-t-21012t Energy in units of l a s e r photons Fig. 4. Typical data of Weingartshofer et al. showing multiphoton peaks in the electron energy spectra. ) scattered electrons were detected as functions of the incident electron energy (Ei),the electron scattering angle (e), and the angle ($) between the laser beam and p o , as indicated in fig, 3.
The Keldysh Approximation The perturbation theory of multiphoton ionization discussed earlier involves an expansion in powers of the field, and as such can be intractable or at best 26 ATOMS IN STRONG FIELDS [I, § 6 very cumbersome when one is concerned with really intense fields. The Keldysh approximation (Keldysh [ 19651) is an alternative approach to intense-field ionization in which the binding potential rather than the field is regarded as a perturbation. It is characterized by the treatment of the photoelectron as an otherwise free electron in the applied field; the detached electron is thus described by a Volkov state.
Since the multimode radiation from a free-running high-power laser can usually be assumed to approximate such incoherent radiation in its temporal fluctuations, we can expect n-photon ionization rates 18 ATOMS IN STRONG FIELDS [I. z n! larger than those calculated according to perturbation theory under the assumption of a fully coherent field. Indeed, experimentally determined n-photon ionization cross sections are often much larger, by an order of magnitude or more, than those predicted by perturbation theory under the assumption of fully coherent radiation, and furthermore the discrepancy increases with increasing n.